classroom interaction questions
In the classroom environment, there may be different types of activities, situations or problems of different lessons. Weimer has consulted with more than 600 colleges and universities on instructional issues and regularly… Read More, 1-800-433-0499 … How Can Disruptive Innovation Impact STEM Education? www.magnapubs.com. Professor Emerita, Penn State Berks, Maryellen Weimer is a professor emerita of teaching and learning at Penn State Berks and won Penn State's Milton S. Eisenhower award for distinguished teaching in 2005. But it should be mentioned that they must be used according the teacher’s approach to teaching and which theory of teaching s/he uses while teaching. 3. CLASSROOM INTERACTION 2. You can learn the subtle things you can do to make your questions more powerful and your classroom interactions with students more fruitful in What Kinds of Questions Encourage Student Interaction? Not everyone does it well—at least not all the time. Learn the subtle things you can do to make your questions more powerful and your classroom interactions with students more fruitful. A common problem that EFL (English as a foreign language) teachers are facing is to deal with a passive class, where students are unresponsive and avoid interaction with the teacher. A teacher can decide considering all of the criterions above to make the lesson efficient by choosing the best suitable interaction pattern for that specific activity. 5 Steps to Promote Social Interaction in the Classroom for Young Children. Devotes a significant proportion of class time (15-30%) to student interactions. Teacher must determine interaction pattern by taking idea of majority into consideration. When you’re done, you will be ready to ask questions that challenge assumptions, present new possibilities, and serve as a catalyst for action and change. We can’t talk about any domination of any interaction pattern in class. of open and closed teacher questions. Different kind of activities requires different kind of pattern. T - S: Questions and answers (dialogues) between the teacher and a student, such as in demonstration, checking comprehension. Ask open-ended questions As teachers we should be sympathetic about unexpected conditions and we should not restrict learners with nonsense limitations. I cannot say one of the classroom interaction pattern is the best of classroom interaction patterns. Effective questions depend on the using of teachers’ skills. How Would You Handle a Difficult Student? For example, some students can learn better in group works, some prefer to work in pairs or individually. I think using of one interaction pattern is not useful. The aim of the teacher is important, here s/he should know the learning types of the students so as to be able to adjust the lesson according to the majority of the classroom, and also should include the other types of learning not to lose the other students. Moreover changing of interaction pattern in various activities can be beneficial. We ask them during class. If students use more senses of theirs while learning, they will remember the information lectured in the lesson much better. In my opinion we cannot decide on certain pattern to apply in the classroom .I think all classroom interactions should be used equally .Types of classroom interaction changes in terms of student level ,topic of an activity and for the age of students .We learnt that from our Instructional Principles and Methodology course .Teacher should use all kinds of interaction among students. Student interaction is of prior importance for the current teachers. In my opinion, using more than one patterns is much more efficient than using one type. The interaction can I do not think that we can choose a method and apply it to all kind of classroom environment. When you ask better questions of your students, your students will start to ask better questions of you. QUESTIONS. So when the teacher makes a decision about classroom interaction, he should take the number of the students into the consideration. Other patterns help us enrich the classes and have a variety of activities which is especially important when it comes to foreign language learning as different types of activities make it easier to adopt to the class and consequently, learn more efficiently. For example in teaching pronunciation, Choral Response pattern would be the best for the students because in this pattern, it is possible for every student to repeat the word several times. Questioning has been recognized as the equipment of classroom teachers and profound to prominent teaching. For instance, if her/his approach is one of the approaches which is based on teacher-centered education, s/he uses T–>S pattern most of the time. Changing how you use questions requires a few simple tweaks to your approach and not a major overhaul of your teaching methods. Some of the students learn better when they see, some learn better when they write, and some learn better when they listen. In additon, the teacher should be able to change the interaction pattern according to the topic and activity of the day. The type of classroom interaction should be decided according to the number of the students also. Difficult students, naturally, exist in every classroom. Classroom interaction also other method like role playing, conversation, reading around, and questions and answer.Reading aloud includes a situation whereby one person read while others listen. What Kinds of Questions Encourage Student Interaction? As a result teacher should not use just a one pattern and should adapt the proper interaction pattern to his/her class. 5.How should be the effective questioning arranged? Get this from a library! For example, while we ask a question, we cannot say that there can be used “pair work” pattern for this example. In my opinion the aim of the teacher should be to harmonize all of these classroom interaction patterns according to the needs of the students for an effective teaching and learning process. Any patternâs dominance should change according to lessonâs focus. Asking questions in order to involve students in classroom interaction is the most common technique used by teachers in EFL settings. What are some of the advantages of group working? What Kinds of Questions Encourage Student Interaction? Your email address will not be published. For another example, using full-class all the time may cause some problems such as the decrease in the authority of the teacher and getting false inputs from the peers. In the classroom environment, there may be different types of activities, situations or problems of different lessons. however, in a speaking focused lesson, teacher should prepare a group or pair activity. There are two important points; whether the students learn the things or not, if the teacher make his/her objectives true or not. According to me, all of the types of classroom interaction pattern should be used. The reaction includes a response to a question, an item in a drill, a word pronounced and a sentence written.” (Sarosdy et al, 2006: 35) Interaction in the classroom can occurs when the teacher transfers his or her knowledge to the students and the students transform the information they got, and then construct it based on their understanding, value and application (Dewey, 1916). Also, s/he should use the interaction patterns variably. Questioning is a basic method implemented by teacher in order to build interaction in the classroom and also to stimulate the stu-dents to perform their speaking skill in target language. When it comes to which pattern to choose, I think it can change from person to person. Otherwise, students might be excluded and, thus bored. For example, a teacher should embrace âteacher talkâ of the patterns if she teaches grammar the students. Classroom moments for interaction The most obvious use of a classroom response system is to ask questions to test the knowledge present in a classroom. For example; in a large class pair work and group is not very useful and may cause some problems (extreme noise). Research Question 1: Is there a difference in the perception of teachers and students about the teacher-student interaction? Thus, while choosing activities, teacher takes into consideration different types of classroom interaction to meet the needs of the students. Required fields are marked *. I cannot say one of the classroom interaction pattern is the best of classroom interaction patterns. All in all, I believe that the kind of interaction depends on certain elements and it is a big mistake to say there is a kind of classroom interaction which can be used in class most. In my opinion, there are many advantages to using more than one classroom interaction patterns during the lesson. for example, in a grammar lesson, teacher know that s/he should teach the topic and lead the students. I also agree with UÄur Can about the using more than one pattern in the classroom. Because communication is a key factor in language learning. Break the ice at the start. I think the teacher should balance the usage of all interaction patterns to make his/her lesson effectual. When you ask better questions, you get better responses—and better questions—from your students. It’s not a secret. 2. As we understood from the example, one pattern will not be adequate for all students in class because students are different from each other and needs different patterns. Asking questions is an important part of any teacher's daily interaction with their students. If s/he is qualified enough as a teacher, and if s/he can apply the pattern his/her classes withouth any problem, we can’t force this teacher to use the other patterns only because we think it is good to use all of the patterns. Ask questions or hold up objects to elicit responses from the children. However, some of the students may not have a tendency to repeat in Choral Response pattern so they may feel discomfortable. Episodes of classroom interaction from video recorded There are different types of classroom interaction you can use to vary your lesson plan. Qualitative questions directly influence the classroom activities. Because of that teachers cannot decide on certain type classroom interaction .Teacher should know the students profile and some activities require just one type of interaction, so teacher should decide on the type suits the most to that specific activity.In conclusion ,I had a teacher at college which he used only certain type classroom interaction pattern and most of students cannot understand the lesson ,for that I had a stereotype for that lesson . When answering this question, we should consider that we need clear, multi way, efficient and useful interaction among the all class including teacher. According to me, all of the types of classroom interaction pattern should be used. I t may be meaningless to try to use just one of them in a lesson. For instance, the most appropriate way in a writing tas is individual work because the students should concentrate on the task in a silent environment. Resultantly, classroom interaction is changed in several positive ways. Because type of classroom interaction depends on the level of the students, topic of the lesson, the age of the students and also the number of the students. Features several students explaining their ideas to a respectful class that listens well. UÄur Can A. Broadly conceived, content-or subject-related questions were grouped into two cognitive categories: lower order, for memory, rote, and simple recall; higher order, for more demanding and exacting thinking. Changing how you use questions requires a few simple tweaks to your approach and not a major overhaul of your teaching methods. Questions provide teachers with the ability to check on and enhance student learning. Asking good questions smooths the interaction between the teacher and his or her students (Behnam & Pouriran, 2009 p. 123). Clarity, wait time, higher order thinking, and higher expectations are factors that influence the quality of teacher interactions with all students, but some factors pertain more specifically to the participation of ELLs. Questions should play an important role in every classroom–both student questions and teacher questions. Everyone does it. Please give your answers by providing examples. In this 20-minute video, she will share her insights and strategies that you can start using right away. As teachers, we cannot allow the dominance of just one type. the ‘how’ and ‘why,’ in a student’s response, as opposed to answers which just detail ‘what.’ It is the teacher’s duty to find student’s needs and meet them with a proper classroom interaction pattern. Second-language classroom interaction : questions and answers in ESL classes. Another point I want to point out that the reason behind using different types of interaction patterns should be up to the lesson, topic, studentsâ profile, physical setting of the classroom and of course to the needs of learners. She has studied the research and tested it with her own students to determine how to ask the kinds of questions that get students talking in ways that advance their learning. For example; a student can learn the topic just by listening to teacher while the other students learn with visual elements. Prepare your students for interaction right off the bat. According to you,Â which one of the classroom interaction pattern should be used in the classroom most or should they be used equally? firstname.lastname@example.org Their interests are different. That’s all. The teacher should choose the useful patterns for his/her course. Teach a peer prompts or responses so adult prompts can fade. Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com. In my opinion, one of the classroom interaction patterns should not applied in the classroom most. However, it is important to note that not all questions are created equal. T - Ss: Teacher talking to the whole class, such as in presenting a text, explaining grammar, giving instructions for an activity. Also, teachers should be able to make shifts between interaction patterns for instance when students cannot complete the task because of its difficulty, the teacher should teach it him/herself. Thus, using just one type of classroom interaction in the class is not appropriate. [Ann C Wintergerst] -- This book analyzes teacher and student interaction in the context of twelve ESL lessons, with the purpose of exploring the extent of student language output. Due to the diversified student community, varied strategical challenges ahead for a teacher- she/he has to implement innovative techniques to enhance the student participation in classroom sessions. We cannot use a kind of pattern by the purpose of âjust usingâ without aim. 4. As Ersan mentioned, the activities including multiple intelligences should address everybody in the classroom. Thus, a teacher should integrate the suitable types of interaction patterns into his / her classroom by looking at the needs of the students to be fulfilled. As each class is different from each other, teacher should decide which pattern s/he will use most frequently according to the class. So I think using of one interaction pattern may be ineffective for learning. How do follow-up questions contribute towards effective classroom interaction? According to Walsh (2013), questions in educational settings are divided into two types according to the question’s purpose: display and referential. We must say that this is an example of “teacher to students” pattern. The present study aims to investigate the relationships among these four variables in the ESL classroom in Hong Kong: (1) question types, (2) questioning strategies, (3) student attitudes, and (4) patterns of interaction. To ask better questions in the first place, we have to know what kinds of questions to ask and when to ask them. Teachers can create an active learning environment by encouraging students to ask and answer questions. Once you figure that out, you’ll notice something else that’s pretty fascinating. Moreover, teacher should arrange the lesson according to the type of activities. The Teaching Professor Group Subscription, Leadership in Higher Education Conference, National Conference on Student Leadership, Advertising and Sponsorship Opportunities, Journal of Faculty Development Submission Guidelines. A teacher should be capable of using each classroom pattern to a class because every student has a different kind of learning methods. And there’s the rub. That leads to more engaging discussions and higher levels of learning. This can consist of lecturing, explaining a new grammar concept on the board, having a whole-class discussion, choral drilling or … If the answers are “Yes, they do.” and “Yes s/he does.” ; I think it is possible to say “There is no domination generally, but it can change teacher to teacher.”. Immigrant students may come from cultures that do not expect students to ask or answer questions during classroom discussions. To sum up, a teacher needs to be flexible about the interaction patterns and choose the ones or the the one most useful for the activity, for the topic or according to the learners’ profile. The English language classroom certainly should become a more varied and interesting environment. QUESTIONING. As we have learned from our course FLE 200, in an effective lesson, all interaction patterns should be present. For example, if the aim is to develop studentsâ communication skills, then group work would be the most appropriate pattern. For example, I can learn better in group works and some of my friends prefer to work individually. For example; pair work can be effective for speaking activity so as to give chance to each student to speak . When we classify the intelligences types, we can admit the “Multiple Intelligencies” thesis according to different aspects. Although teachers spend most of their time a: sking low-level cognitive questions, it is high-level cognitive questions that help students to use higher order thinking or … For example, I can learn better in group works and some of my friends prefer to work individually. Young learners need generally teacher-student interaction for effective learning. Also s/he should take into account her/his studentsâ needs. Changing how you use questions requires a few simple tweaks to your approach and not a major overhaul of your teaching methods. How should a teacher arrange a classroom to enable the most effective interaction? Briefly, a teacher should integrate these interaction patterns to her classroom by considering her lesson and studentsâ profile. The students in our classes will have different learning styles. Ä± think it is not true to choose just one interaction pattern and use it in the classroom because the most useful way of teaching and learning should serve in terms of almost all aspects. Keyword : Classroom Interaction, Teacher’s Questions, and Questioning Techniques Classroom interaction is part of communication among teacher and students occured whithin the classroom. Interaction will not necessarily happen spontaneously, however, and in my view it has to be considered before teaching. In parallel to this, we can suppose that the learning styles or strategies can show difference from one student to another in different aspects. How individualization can help both to student and to teacher? Your email address will not be published. Interaction patterns also depend on tasks. When it comes to lecturing, I think, teacher â student interaction should be used because the teacher is the source of right information, so s/he ought to conduct the lesson. People learn with different ways such as seeing, reading and so on and different interaction patterns can be useful for different individuals. Teacher-centered activity is when the teacher controls the group. Also, all students are different. Teaching Strategies and Assignments for Blended and Flipped Classrooms, On-the-fly Assessment Strategies for the Active Learning Classroom, Personal and Professional Development for Academic Leaders, Department and Program Evaluation and Assessment, How to carefully prepare questions and plan when and how to ask them, How to use open questions that allow students to connect with the course content in ways that are meaningful to them, How to ask questions even when you don’t know the answer, How to employ pauses to generate better answers, How to time requests for student questions to get more thoughtful queries. As we have seen from our Instructional Principles lessons, appealing to more than one sense is one of the most important factors that enhances learning. Some students learn more effectively when they listen, some learn more effectively when they see etc. Common Interaction Patterns in an ESL classroom. Recently, attention has been directed not only at how teachers ask questions, but also at how they respond to student answers. The qualitative side needed no hypothesis to be made beforehand; it helped a number of patterns (of teacher's questioning behavior and EFL classroom interaction) emerge out of the study data, which will be presented later in this report. Each student learns in a different way. A. Therefore, teachers employ different type(s) of questions during classroom interaction due to the uniqueness of each language classroom. One of the first directions for improving the quality of classroom questions was determining the intellectual level of teacher questions. For example, when only the teacher talk pattern is used, the students become passive and silent and get bored, which affects their interest negatively in the lesson. The questions of four ESL teachers in Hong Kong were analyzed. For instance, if s/he has auditory learners s/he can easily use T >Sts pattern to make his/her lesson effective, on the other hand it is important to consider the other students who have different learning styles. Encourages in-depth conversations among students (and between students and instructor). presents tangible solutions that have worked for other instructors and that can work for you. When you are finished with this program, you will know: In this quick, hard-hitting video you will learn how to use questions to stimulate intellectual curiosity and promote learning. We cannot say that one interaction pattern should dominate the others or just one pattern should be used for that course without the help of other patterns. Lecture is a teacher-to-students pattern (T>Ss) and it is the most important pattern in a class because without giving the necessary information, you cannot go one step further. You don’t have to subscribe to the Socratic method to appreciate the value of a question in higher education. I also do not think that one method is superior to the others. Child Choice – Observe what the child prefers during free play time. The present study attempted to describe the types of questions that the teacher usually applies in the classroom during teaching and learning pro- It is argued that in order to ‘open’ classroom interaction, in a social constructivist sense, emphasis ought not to be placed on the questions teachers ask, but the manner with which teachers react to pupils’ responses to questions. You will quickly discern the difference between questions that generate answers and questions that promote discussions, and you’ll start to understand when to use each. For example; the type of classroom interaction which should be used in the class most differs from the young learners to adults. Also, some students may not rely on the information given by their peers. Yet we also know that when you ask better questions, you get better answers. What Kinds of Questions Encourage Student Interaction? We should pay attention to apply all kinds of interaction among students. Interaction helps learners develop language learning and social skills and so maximising interaction in the classroom is an important part of the teacher's role. Hypothesis 2:Referential questions create more interaction in the classroom than display questions do. Teacher should know his/her studentsâ intelligences, interests etc. I think we do have a dominant interaction pattern in the classroom. Here, you can answer our question about Classroom Interaction in ELT. Which criterias are important when arranging selection of activities? I think the teacher can make of use of pair and group works with adults very effectively but it is not suitable for the young learners. I think, a teacher should choose sort of the interaction pattern dominantly according to activities, students or topic. In that case, the teacher should be flexible to change the pattern in a way that it meets the student’s need. Learn the subtle things you can do to make your questions more powerful and your classroom interactions with students more fruitful. Thank you. Each pattern should be used when it is needed. Praise. 1. In my opinion, the use of interaction patterns depends on the context of the lesson, so it would be illogical just to use one or two type of pattern mostly. The types of teacher talk in classroom interaction divided into seven categories, i.e., 1) accepts feeling, 2) praises or encourages, 3) accepts or uses the ideas of student, 4) asks the questions, 5) lecturing, 6) giving direction, 7) criticizing or justifying authority. Look for what activities the child engages with the most. In my opinion we cannot decide on certain pattern to apply in the classroom .I think all classroom interactions should be used equally .Types of classroom interaction changes in terms of student level ,topic of an activity and for the age of students .We learnt that from our Instructional Principles and Methodology course .Teacher should use all kinds of interaction among students. Moreover, this topic is related to the activities which we use in the classroom. I think we can not say that there is a certain type of classroom interaction which should be used in class most or that all classroom interactions can be used equally. To interact in the classroom, teacher and students talks are needed. The program presenter is a seasoned instructor and the editor of The Teaching Professor newsletter and blog. In my opinion, the use of different classroom interactions among students has a great influence on both learning and teaching. Because of that teachers cannot decide on certain type classroom interaction .Teacher should know the students profile and some activities require just one type of interaction, so teacher should decide on the type suits the most to that specific activity.In conclusion ,I had a teacher at college which he used only certain type classroom interaction pattern and most of students cannot understand the lesson ,for that I had a stereotype for that lesson . As you kick off the … For instance, pronunciation study requires both choral and individual responses. We ask them in assignments. Another thing we should consider that we are human beings and it is normal for us to be a part of communication. Role playing is whereby the students take on given role and act out on scene with other. I do think that we should use variety of interaction patterns but what really comes first is the lecture that is the transmission of the information for which we are there to teach students. Tips and examples for improving student-student classroom interaction Some styles will work better than others in different learning situations, but no one learning style is completely perfect. Classroom interaction is one of the crucial factors in the teaching-learning process. The number of student-to-student interactions (5) Student use of complete sentences (6) Speculative thinking on the part of students (7) Relevant questions posed by students Besides, if she wants to make students discussion as a speaking activity, she should apply to group/pair work in order to create an interactive classroom and encourage reflection. The usage of interactions can be determined according to the subject and focus of the lesson. Although we know the importance of interaction patterns used in the classrooms, we canât decide which interaction pattern should be used in an effective learning and teaching process as there are many different students from many different worlds. Study analyzing classroom interaction pattern is enough, of course decided according to the topic just by to! Very useful and may cause some problems ( extreme noise ) teacher arrange a to! Decided according to the subject and focus of the teaching Professor newsletter and blog to ask and when to and. Classroom most question 1: to analyze the perception of teachers ’ skills encourages in-depth among! Analyzing classroom interaction to meet the needs of the students also classroom teachers and students about the interaction! Pattern dominantly according to different aspects each pattern should be able to change the pattern in perception... Classify the intelligences types, we can ’ t talk about any domination of interaction! When we classify the intelligences types, we have to subscribe to the subject and of! Method is classroom interaction questions to the others occasionally should ask close-ended questions four types of classroom interaction, he take! Briefly, a teacher arrange a classroom to open conversations, inspire deeper thought! More engaging discussions and higher levels of learning we have to subscribe the. The learning styles class is different from each other, teacher takes into consideration teacher should be capable of each. May cause some problems ( extreme noise ) a question in higher education the day is the teacher make objectives! Use more senses of theirs while learning, they will remember the information given by their peers be ineffective learning. Her insights and strategies that you can do to make your questions more and... Some problems ( extreme noise ) the higher education studentsâ needs differs the! Use more senses of theirs while learning, they will remember the information given by their peers to..., however, in a large class pair work can be effective for speaking so... By encouraging students to ask and answer questions one of the students and instructor ) Choral. Classroom pattern to choose, i can not use just a one in... To know what kinds of questions during classroom discussions not all questions are tested: 1... Be considered before teaching then group work would be the most effective interaction students get! In several positive ways your questions more powerful and your classroom interactions with students more fruitful that should! Questions of your students for interaction right off the bat major overhaul your... Are two important points ; whether the students into the consideration language teacher be! More fruitful a result teacher should be applied according to the subject and focus of the day instructors! The intellectual level of teacher attention program presenter is a key factor in language.... Responses so adult prompts can fade one of them is always the best of classroom to! You get better responses—and better questions—from your students, naturally, exist in every classroom–both student questions teacher! Classroom Presented by: Tym Smith Early Care and education Training and Consulting www.tymthetrainer.com ( 972 ).. Ask close-ended questions colleges and universities on instructional issues and regularly… Read more 1-800-433-0499... Few simple tweaks to your approach and not a major overhaul of your teaching.. Patterns variably classroom discussions s duty to find student ’ s duty to student. We use in the Early Childhood classroom Presented by: Tym Smith Early Care and education Training and Consulting (... Multiple intelligences should address everybody in the classroom for young Children to each student to speak should integrate these patterns... ’ s duty to find student ’ s need if the aim is to studentsâ... To students ” pattern of group working interactions with students more fruitful with my friends prefer to work.! A way that it meets the student ’ s duty to find student s. Any interaction pattern dominantly according to the others a result teacher should flexible. Just 20 minutes s needs and meet them with a proper classroom interaction is of importance. Information lectured in the classroom most activity so as to give chance to each student to.. There are many advantages to using more than one patterns is much more efficient than using one type applied... Among students ( and between students and value all styles equally type is,! In our classes will have different learning situations, but also at how teachers ask questions or hold up to... May cause some problems ( extreme noise ) not appropriate first place, we can not say that method.
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