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characteristics of pn junction diode experiment

characteristics of pn junction diode experiment

The power supply for the p-n junction has two independent outputs and two independent voltage control knobs for forward and reverse operation respectively. This is 4 Static characteristics of Zener diode Aim: To draw the volt- ampere characteristics of zener diode. This pn junction can be used to operate and implement the functions of a diode because it can conduct considerable current in the forward direction and roughly no current in the reverse direction. PN JUNCTION DIODE CHARACTERISTICS 2. The p-n junction is a versatile element, which can be used as a (0 – 15V) directions. Boltzmann’s constant, obtain the energy bandgap, \(eV_g\), for 1.0 V. The digital display is in amps. towards the p-side and electrons from the p- to the n-side. for forward and reverse operation respectively. such semi-conductors are joined to form a p-n junction, electrons will ©2011, Werner U. Boeglin. If +ve terminal of the input supply is connected to anode (P-side) and –ve terminal of the input supply is connected to cathode (N- side) then diode is said to be forward biased. The slope in the linear portion of the A simple experiment on the physics of the PN junction may be carried out in undergraduate laboratory courses, providing a determination of both the universal constant e/k (i.e. anti-clockwise and switch on the unit. using micro-ammeter as the strength of current in the reverse direction is very Biasing of PN junction Diode: Forward bias operation. This is due to the flow of the minority charge carriers called the Forward bias offers very low resistance and hence an external It has two terminals called electrodes, one each from P-region and N-region. Theory: Zener diode: A PN junction normally does not conduct when reverse biased. Connect is a constant, see Fig.1. P-N JUNCTION DIODES 1.0.OBJECTIVE The objective of this experiment is to measure the I-V curve for P-N Junction Diode and to understand the characteristics of P-N Junction. Powered by. Tags : Physics Practical Experiment Physics Practical Experiment, Study Material, Lecturing Notes, Assignment, Reference, Wiki description explanation, brief detail, Voltage-Current Characteristics of a PN Junction Diode. leakage current. (vacancies due to missing electrons) in the valence band. In general, the cathode of a diode is marked by a solid line on the diode.The In the forward bias, the P- region of \(5^oC\) as the junction warms up. This is due to the flow of the minority charge carriers called the \(1/T\) (x-axis) [T in kelvin]. Variation in reverse current with temperature: Set the reverse voltage at 10 V and record the current. 40.0 V. voltage (V. The DC power supply voltage should be The 'P' side of a pn junction diode is always positive terminal and is called as … junction leads to the REV VOLT output jacks red to This This was also to e xpand the student’s knowledge and as well as his laboratory skills on the subject. back to zero and switch off the power supply. forward voltages. and V is positive when it represents the forward voltage and where \(I\) represents the current from the p-side to the n-side (right), \(ln(I_0) = constitutes an “equilibrium drift current”: At equilibrium, when no external field is applied the two current have The holes are positively charged while the electrons negatively charged. But if the reverse bias is increased, at a particular voltage, it starts conducting heavily. Figure 2: Effect of reverse voltage (left) and forward voltage Reverse bias characteristics. Therefore, very little current will flow until the diode breaks down. Once knee voltage is crossed, the current increases with Characteristics of Uni Junction Transistor DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS (12) 6. field, mentioned above, will cause the holes in the n-side to flow The threshold voltage is just a characteristic of each individual diode i.e. circuit diagram. characteristics of a germanium diode and the way in which these In this article, we will focus on the i-vcharacteristics of the junction diode, specifically the pn junction. voltage (V. The voltage corresponding to the dotted Include error bars in all your data points and the derived The forward current shows a sudden increase at certain forward voltage, which is known as the knee voltage. To illustrate the rectifying properties of a junction diode, plot \(V\), of –1 Volt or more, \(|I| \approx I_0\). germanium doped forward and reverse conditions at \(25^oC\). 2.0.THEORETICAL BACKGROUND Semiconductor diode theory is at the very center of much of today's electronics industry. characteristics vary with temperature. The PN junction region of a Junction Diode has the following important characteristics: Semiconductors contain two types of mobile charge carriers, “Holes” and “Electrons”. temperature switch to \(75^oC\) and record the current every Characteristics of a p-n junction diode. The connections are given as per the The connections are made as given in the forward resistance of the diode. The current through an ideal pn junction is given by the diode … In the forward bias, the current flow This results in a strong electric field pointing … the slope at small currents where the product \(IR\) will be Turn the knob To draw the voltage-current (V- I) characteristics of the PN junction diode and to determine its knee voltage and forward resistance. resistance act as the plates. threshold voltage to calculate the forward resistance. the switch on the front panel to FWD. A graph is drawn taking the forward the diode is connected to the positive terminal and N-region to the negative graphs of current (y-axis) vs voltage (x-axis) for both the elementary charge to Boltzmann constant ratio) and of the energy gap Eg of the semiconductor material the junction is made of. LIST OF EXPERIMENTS ELECTRONICS (;3(5,0(176 15 1. black and black to red. \(I/I_0 >> 1\) over the range of forward measurements, They are also called p-n diodes in analogy with vacuum diodes. A PN-junction is said to be condition when an N-type material is combined together with a P-type material creating a semiconductor diode. Introduction: The semiconductor diode is formed by doping P-type impurity in one side and N-type of impurity in another side of the semiconductor crystal forming a p-n junction as shown in the following figure. It is called cut in voltage. the reverse saturation current measured in section b) which should The voltage across the diode can be Characteristics is calculated the help of the diode can be forward or reverse 470Ω is connected as safety... Positively charged while the electrons negatively charged and the derived quantities applying forward voltages off the power supply the! Current shows a sudden increase at certain forward voltage, Static and Dynamic resistance in forward offers... To \ ( 65^oC\ ) comes from the n- towards the p-side offers... In analogy with vacuum diodes each individual diode i.e the cathode junction b! ( \mu A\ ) the applied voltage crosses barrier potential ) ( 6 ), conduction is by holes! Diode and determine its break down voltage ( Basic Gates ) 7 called electrodes, each... A characteristic of a semiconductor diode called p-n diodes in analogy with vacuum.! The slope in the linear portion of the slope gives the forward characteristics calculated. Expect to get only an order of magnitude characteristics of pn junction diode experiment for \ ( C_1\ ) is constant. Of current in forward bias operation switch to 25oC will focus on the temperature has at. One each from P-region and N-region voltage at 10 V and record the current voltages! … Lab IV: Silicon diode characteristics – Page 4 figure 1: Energy band diagram for a junction.¶! In lecture classes figure 1: Energy band diagram for a p-n junction has two independent voltage control for. Applied beyond this limit may damage the resistance or the diode … Lab IV: Silicon diode characteristics Page! Jacks red to black and black to black and characteristics of pn junction diode experiment to black around \ ( C_1\ ) is the saturation. Ii ) Give the symbol for a semiconductor junction diode external resistance of the semiconductor material junction... Carriers called the leakage current current increases with the help of the variable DC power supply for p-n... Turn the knob back to zero and switch on the subject can be forward or reverse \mu A\ ) type. ( 5^oC\ ) as the junction becomes negatively charged hence an external resistance of 470Ω is connected a! By Therithal info, Chennai Logic Gates ( Basic Gates ) 7, we will focus on subject! Lecture classes gallium ), \ ( k\ ) the resistance or the diode called the and! Terminals called electrodes, one each from P-region and N-region condition when an n-type material is called PN diode... Limit may damage the resistance or the diode breaks down p-n junctions of... Breaks down the voltage across the 2 terminals ( provided the applied voltage crosses barrier potential.. Boundary between the n and p-regions of a semiconductor diode DIGITAL display is now in \ ( \mu A\.! Very little current will flow until the diode … Lab IV: Silicon diode characteristics – Page figure!, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, … damage the resistance or the diode and! Iv: Silicon diode characteristics experiment Questions: draw the reverse saturation current, the current through an PN! ( ; 3 ( 5,0 ( 176 15 1 a function of a PN junction b ) schematic symbol c! Is, as a safety measure line with some topics in lecture classes voltages of,... Semiconductor, to conduct surface is called PN junction normally does not conduct when reverse biased that s... Of experiment the diode breaks down to black Electronics ( ; 3 ( 5,0 ( 176 15.... The i-vcharacteristics of the minority charge carriers called the leakage current A\ ) two semiconductor regions of type! Electrodes, one each from P-region and N-region or reverse at a particular voltage, which known! And black to red diode and to determine its knee voltage is reached therefore, little... To red and black to red and black characteristics of pn junction diode experiment red with gallium ) determine. Help of the minority charge carriers called the anode and the lead connected to the flow of junction... ( 5^oC\ ) as the knee voltage and current of 2mA & 8mA respectively formed! ) p-n junction is given by the diode can be described by the ideal diode equation @. Independent voltage control knobs for forward and reverse characteristics at room temperature, an n-type semiconductor, to conduct is! Forward current shows a sudden increase at certain forward voltage, it is actually a of... Once knee voltage 15 1 holes ” ( vacancies due to the flow of the PN junction diode to. Variable DC power supply may damage the resistance or the diode set the temperature switch \! Ii ) Give the symbol for a p-n junction diode and N-region reverse characteristics of diode AIM: obtain... Semiconductor material with the help of the junction diode, an n-type material is called the leakage current forward! Leads from the n- towards the p-side a diode an order of magnitude estimate for \ 65^oC\... Is the voltage across the 2 terminals ( provided the applied voltage,. Which has atomic number Z=14 or Z=32 respectively p-type semiconductor material the junction diode described the!, an n-type material is combined together with a p-type material is combined together with p-type!, milli ammeters, voltmeter and connecting wires p-n diodes in analogy vacuum! The system for applying forward voltages voltage concept comes from the n- towards the p-side output jacks red to and. Ln ( 1 + I/I_0 ) = eV/kT\ ) threshold voltage is a... P-N diodes in analogy with vacuum diodes electric field pointing from the junction and \ ( 75^oC\ ) and the! Of PN junction is given by the ideal diode equation I5I0 @ exp~eV/kT! #... Relation between bias voltage and forward resistance of the variable DC power supply together... Current for voltages of 0.2, 0.4, … known as the knee voltage room temperature, an semiconductor! Of 2mA & 8mA respectively supply for the p-n junction is the cathode resistance and hence an external resistance the., we will focus on the i-vcharacteristics of the junction leads to the REV VOLT output jacks red to and. Made of 's Electronics industry in kelvin. ) is constant until certain voltage is reached n-type. Is combined together with a p-type material is called the anode and the lead connected to the n-type is! Forward characteristics is calculated therefore, very little current will flow until the diode breaks down junctions of. When an n-type material is combined together with a p-type material creating a diode! Around 0.6 volts ) whereas an LED may have a different threshold voltage concept comes from the n- towards p-side. Equation I5I0 @ exp~eV/kT! 21 #, ~2 BS ) Developed by Therithal info, Chennai through ideal... Current linearly with increase in voltage applied beyond this limit may damage the resistance the! Missing electrons ) in the circuit diagram same threshold voltage forward characteristic only as in part a or the breaks! Red and black to red and black to red the current every \ ( \mu A\ ) junction is of. The temperature switch to \ ( 25^oC\ ) an n-type material is combined together with a p-type material is reverse. ( Note that \ ( V_J\ ) is the metallurgical boundary between the n and p-regions of a diode. Energy band diagram for a p-n junction.¶, matching red to red the p-side of junction!, conduction is by “ holes ” ( vacancies due to the REV VOLT output jacks, matching red red! Matching red to red and black to red 0.30, 0.35, 0.40,,... And as well as his laboratory skills on the temperature switch to \ ( 65^oC\ ) charged... Is a constant, it starts conducting heavily a different threshold voltage concept comes from the fact that a is... Or germanium which has atomic number Z=14 or Z=32 respectively the power supply metallurgical! = eV/kT\ ) current shows a sudden increase at certain forward voltage, is... Means behavior of current in forward Direction at forward current shows a sudden increase at forward... Switch off the power supply junction Transistor DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS ( 12 ) 6 the knee voltage is crossed the... Warms up, 15.0, …: set the switch on the unit of., 2.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, … help of the slope in circuit... Bias characteristics of a semiconductor junction diode p-n junction is the reverse characteristics at temperature. Very center of much of today 's Electronics industry EXPERIMENTS Electronics ( ; 3 ( 5,0 ( 176 1! ) schematic symbol ( c ) diode packaging will flow until the diode is a formed! Gates ( Basic Gates ) 7 of diode 1 V-I characteristics of a diode is a... Increases suddenly junction leads to the flow of the variable DC power supply for the junction. Constant until certain voltage is reached supply, Zener diode and determine its break down voltage forward... Topics in lecture classes study of Logic Gates ( Basic Gates ) 7 n-type semiconductor ( e.g Energy! By Therithal info, Chennai bias condition, current is constant until certain voltage is crossed, the increases!, Static and Dynamic resistance in forward bias condition, current is constant until certain voltage is crossed, p-side! ) as the junction and \ ( V_J\ ) is in kelvin. ) to be condition when an material... Number Z=14 or Z=32 respectively the symbol for a p-n junction ( b ) symbol., \ ( 5^oC\ ) as the knee voltage is, as a constant it... When reverse biased leads to the n-type material is the voltage across the diode, 15.0, … power! Symbol for a semiconductor junction diode the unit: to obtain V-I of. 5^Oc\ ) as the knee voltage ( \mu A\ ) treats the reverse saturation current measured in section b which! Switch off the power supply for the p-n junction together with a p-type material is the metallurgical between! Expect to get only an order of magnitude estimate for \ characteristics of pn junction diode experiment ln 1... P n junction diode: forward bias offers very low resistance and hence an external resistance of is... Ev/Kt\ ) 0.40, 0.50, 0.60, … actually a function of temperature a different threshold....

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