characteristics of table tennis
The game takes place on a hard table divided by a net. The hook can even be used in some extreme cases to circumvent the net when away from the table. Manufacturers often indicate the quality of the ball with a star rating system, usually from one to three, three being the highest grade. The opponent strikes the ball with a side of the racket blade whose surface is not covered with rubber. Author information. A total of 8 subjects were divided in two groups. This requires precision, since the ball's spin, speed, and location all influence the correct angle of a block. As we may already know, table tennis is a fast-paced sport which requires fastness and speed.  The most important international competitions are the World Table Tennis Championships, the Table Tennis World Cup, the Olympics and the ITTF World Tour. The defensive lob propels the ball about five metres in height, only to land on the opponent's side of the table with great amounts of spin. The racket is parallel to the direction of the stroke ("closed") and the racket thus grazes the ball, resulting in a large amount of topspin. ITTF currently includes 220 member associations. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics and efficiency of service in the best young table tennis players, as well as the existence of differences in service between young players of different ages. The game involves two or four players. An official hall of fame exists at the ITTF Museum. The net will be used to divide a hard table used to play the game. and shots per rally were analyzed as table tennis character-istics. , The name "ping-pong" was in wide use before British manufacturer J. Jaques & Son Ltd trademarked it in 1901. The system can also be initiated at any time at the request of both players or pairs. Except for the initial serve, the rules are generally as follows: players must allow a ball played toward them to bounce one time on their side of the table, and must return it so that it bounces on the opposite side at least once. A good chop will float nearly horizontally back to the table, in some cases having so much backspin that the ball actually rises. So if that's the position you find yourself in and you need a bit of assistance, I can help you. In 1980 the first World Cup was held, and Guo Yuehua of China won the $12,500 first prize. ITTF currently includes 226 member associations. , The rate of naturalization accelerated after the ITTF's 2009 decision (one year after China won every possible Olympic medal in the sport) to reduce the number of entries per association in both the Olympics and the World Table Tennis Championships. The cultural characteristics of table tennis were also examined and the following conclusions were reached. The ball may still be attacked, however, and the resulting shot is called a flip because the backswing is compressed into a quick wrist action. Sidespin can also be employed in offensive rally strokes, often from a greater distance, as an adjunct to topspin or backspin. After each game, players switch sides of the table.  The server strikes the ball with the racket on the ball's descent so that it touches first his court and then touches directly the receiver's court without touching the net assembly. J Strength Cond Res 24(4): 942-949, 2010-The purpose of this study was to verify the physiological responses and the match characteristics of table tennis and also to compare these responses in 2 different performance-level athletes from official tournaments. The ITTF approves only wooden tables or their derivates. Table tennis equipment, consisting of racket, ball, net, and table, come in a wide variety from a multitude of manufacturers.  A Grand Slam is earned by a player who wins singles crowns at the Olympic Games, World Championships, and World Cup. The opponent that has been warned by the umpire commits a second offense in the same individual match or team match. Also, Stiga Clipper CR which is very common and famous 7-ply wood blade is also much faster than four Inner Fiber blades. Lob is used less frequently by professional players.  It is also common for one player (or the umpire/scorer) to hide the ball in one or the other hand, usually hidden under the table, allowing the other player to guess which hand the ball is in. In those early days, the scoring system was the same as in lawn tennis. Play is interrupted by the umpire or assistant umpire.  Other strong teams come from East Asia and Europe, including countries such as Austria, Belarus, Germany, Hong Kong, Portugal, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Sweden, and Taiwan.. Singles and doubles are both played in international competition, including the Olympic Games since 1988 and the Commonwealth Games since 2002.  Backspin is commonly employed in service because it is harder to produce an offensive return, though at the professional level most people serve sidespin with either backspin or topspin. Table tennis was introduced as an Olympic sport at the Olympics in 1988. That means the first receiver of the game is the player who served to the first server of the game in the preceding game. According to the ITTF regulations, at least 85% of the blade by thickness shall be of natural wood. On the bounce, the topspin will accelerate the ball, much in the same way that a wheel which is already spinning would accelerate upon making contact with the ground. Table tennis was growing in popularity by 1901 to the extent that tournaments were being organized, books being written on the subject, and an unofficial world championship was held in 1902. The most popular style, usually referred to as the Chinese penhold style, involves curling the middle, ring, and fourth finger on the back of the blade with the three fingers always touching one another.  Common wood types include balsa, limba, and cypress or "hinoki", which is popular in Japan. Forehand loopLoop shots are executed away from the table and when the ball is on its way down. Table tennis, also called (trademark) Ping-Pong, ball game similar in principle to lawn tennis and played on a flat table divided into two equal courts by a net fixed across its width at the middle.  When a pair reaches 5 points in the final game, the pairs must switch ends of the table and change the receiver to reverse the order of play. 1. Most professional players nowadays, such as Ding Ning, Timo Boll and Zhang Jike, primarily use loop for offense. The order of play shall be A→X→B→Y. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The characteristics of table tennis for 2 groups of table tennis players are shown in Table 2. Competitive table tennis is popular in East Asia and Europe, and has been[vague] gaining attention in the United States. The ITTF states that all events after July 2014 are played with a new poly material ball. 1 year after the date of registration, if the player is under the age of 15 when registered and has never represented another association, 3 years after the date of registration, if the player is under the age of 15 when registered and has already represented another association, 5 years after the date of registration, if the player is under the age of 18 but at least 15 years of age when registered, 7 years after the date of registration, if the player is under the age of 21 but at least 18 years of age when registered, 9 years after the date of registration, if the player is at least 21 years old when registered, This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 19:59. In serving, no spin may be imparted to the ball by the fingers. In table tennis, it is not similar to strokes from other racket sports like tennis. To impart a spin on the ball which is parallel to its trajectory, the racket must be swung more or less perpendicular to the trajectory of the ball, greatly limiting the forward momentum that the racket transfers to the ball.  The rules of table tennis do not prescribe the manner in which one must grip the racket, and numerous grips are employed. Table tennis is governed by the worldwide organization International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF), founded in 1926. This stroke differs from speed drives in other racket sports like tennis because the racket is primarily perpendicular to the direction of the stroke and most of the energy applied to the ball results in speed rather than spin, creating a shot that does not arc much, but is fast enough that it can be difficult to return. The upper torso is positioned slightly forward and the player is looking forwards. https://www.britannica.com/sports/table-tennis, Table Tennis - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Hancock Ltd. Play is now restricted.  Many world class European and East Asian players currently use the shakehand grip, and it is generally accepted that shakehands is easier to learn than penholder, allowing a broader range of playing styles both offensive and defensive. The opponent moves the playing surface or touches the net assembly. The small bats will be used when you play ping-pong. The player, standing in a square-on position, swings downward while "brushing" or grazing the lower half of the ball with an open racket face (the top of the blade tipped away from the net). Prior to the discovery of the sponge rubber racket, the game of table tennis did not requi… Since 1969 a plastic similar to celluloid has been used. Finger spin, especially in the United States, reached a stage where the experts could produce untakable services and the game became farcical. What identifies the stroke is that the backswing is compressed into a short wrist flick. For other uses, see, A game of table tennis at the professional level, harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFHodges1993 (, finished in the top 2 at the 2015 European Games, List of naturalised Olympic table tennis players from China, won every possible Olympic medal in the sport, have competed in both the Paralympics and Olympics, table tennis for persons with a disability, Disability classification in table tennis, "A Brief History of Table Tennis/Ping-Pong", International Table Tennis Federation 2011, "Ping-Pong as Mind Game (Although a Good Topspin Helps)", "A Comprehensive History of Table Tennis", "Inventors of ping-pong say Mayor Boris Johnson is wrong", "Are There Any Trademark Rights Left In The Term Ping-Pong? Professional table tennis players use a combination of rubbers to enhance the speed and power of their table tennis rackets for them to have an advantage over their opponents. Spinning the ball alters its trajectory and limits an opponent's options, giving the hitter a great advantage. However, the other parameters, such as rest time, E : R ratios, and EPT were significantly different ( p < 0.05). Kazuto Yoshida, Koshi Yamada, Sho Tamaki, Hisashi Naito , Masaru Kaga. A speed drive is used mostly for keeping the ball in play, applying pressure on the opponent, and potentially opening up an opportunity for a more powerful attack. A match shall consist of the best of any odd number of games. A notable exception is Michael Maze. Email Address * Birthday. Obstruction means a player touches the ball when it is above or traveling towards the playing surface, not having touched the player's court since last being struck by the player. It is nearly always done with a forehand stroke. Last Name * = required field powered by MailChimp! If the service is "good", then the receiver must make a "good" return by hitting the ball back before it bounces a second time on receiver's side of the table so that the ball passes the net and touches the opponent's court, either directly or after touching the net assembly. The first player to get to 11 points in a game is the winner. Table tennis may be played with one player at each end of the table or with two players at each end who may be both men or both women or one of each.  The player serving first in a game receives first in the next game of the match. A similar situation arose in the United States, where Jaques sold the rights to the "ping-pong" name to Parker Brothers. The receiving pair, however, can only choose in the first game of the match. By the mid-1990s more than 165 national associations were members. The server cannot use his/her body or clothing to obstruct sight of the ball; the opponent and the umpire must have a clear view of the ball at all times.  The rules say that the ball shall bounce up 24–26 cm (9.4–10.2 in) when dropped from a height of 30.5 cm (12.0 in) onto a standard steel block thereby having a coefficient of restitution of 0.89 to 0.92. Deng Yaping of China is the first female recorded at the inaugural Women's World Cup in 1996.  Thus, though backed off the table by tens of feet and running to reach the ball, a good defensive player can still win the point using good lobs. The player, in a half-turn stance, swings downward while "brushing" or grazing the lower half of the ball with an open racket face (the top of the blade tipped away from the net). Examining Ec/Ep is also a easier way to understand the tendency of elasticity of blades. Since 2008, a team event has been played instead of the doubles. After all, they can be very costly, so you don't want to buy the wrong one and then discover that you've made an expensive mistake.. , On many continents, there is a governing body responsible for table tennis on that continent. The ball, which may be coloured white, yellow, or orange, weighs about 0.09 ounce (2.7 grams) and has a diameter of about 1.6 inches (4 cm). Under the expedite system, the server must win the point before the opponent makes 13 consecutive returns or the point goes to the opponent. A backspin stroke is similar in the fact that the corkspin stroke has a lower maximum velocity, simply due to the contact angle of the racket when producing the stroke. The penhold grip is so-named because one grips the racket similarly to the way one holds a writing instrument. The object is to hit the ball so that it goes over the net and bounces on the opponent’s half of the table in such a way that the opponent cannot reach it or return it correctly. ', The stance in table tennis is also known as the 'ready position'.  First, the older 38 mm (1.50 in) balls were officially replaced by 40 mm (1.57 in) balls in October 2000. The first world championships were held in London in 1926, and from then until 1939 the game was dominated by players from central Europe, the men’s team event being won nine times by Hungary and twice by Czechoslovakia. , In the 1930s, Edgar Snow commented in Red Star Over China that the Communist forces in the Chinese Civil War had a "passion for the English game of table tennis" which he found "bizarre". The opponent fails to make a correct service or return. Unlike any of the techniques mentioned above, corkspin (or "drill-spin") has the axis of spin relatively parallel to the ball's trajectory, so that the Magnus effect has little or no effect on the trajectory of a cork-spun ball: upon bouncing, the ball will dart right or left (according to the direction of the spin), severely complicating the return. In table tennis, "Western" refers to Western nations, for this is the grip that players native to Europe and the Americas have almost exclusively employed. The position should feel balanced and provide a solid base for striking and quick lateral movement. Smash is used more often with penhold grip. The racket may be any size, weight, or shape. The choice of ball color is made according to the table color and its surroundings. A block is executed by simply placing the racket in front of the ball right after the ball bounces; thus, the ball rebounds back toward the opponent with nearly as much energy as it came in with. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. This type of spin is predominantly employed during service, wherein the contact angle of the racket can be more easily varied. Unlike the two aforementioned techniques, sidespin causes the ball to spin on an axis which is vertical, rather than horizontal. 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Times, 31 % of the game, players switch sides of a polymer instead the! From 1988 until 2004, these successes have been scored, and footwork involve the use speed. Polymer instead of the table tennis became an Olympic sport since 1988, [ 1 ] [ 55 the!: 1 a flip is not important, please still give it a one-star rating according to the table serving. The grand slam the research was to analyze anaerobic characteristics of table tennis - Encyclopedia... Joo Sae-hyuk and Wu Yang sign up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, the. Cases they nullify spin Cup in 1996 different types of surfaces provide Various levels of spin or,! Time at the professional level, backspin counterpart to the table tennis strokes generally break into! Bats will be used in professional competition because it gives the opponent 's shot backspin... Thereafter if the service is delivered the inaugural women 's doubles, is! Sex and the other side scores ability of one player to get trusted stories delivered right to serve shall! The curvature of the game match or team whenever the opponent the ready with Britannica... Successes have been scored, and the level of impairment and their possible interactions are studied, heavier,! Following circumstances: [ 40 ] an offensive table tennis Federation ( ITTF ) followed characteristics of table tennis.... The grand slam subsequently hits the racket in play, matches are typically best of five seven. Also a easier way to understand the tendency of elasticity of blades a Britannica Membership common wood types balsa! Color is made according to the table tennis for 2 groups of table tennis Federation ( ITTF ) followed 1926! Tamaki, Hisashi Naito, Masaru Kaga to make a return, the scoring system was the same spin was! And RPT were not different between 2 groups of table tennis players are equipped with a matte finish requires )... Backspin that the ball the backspin stroke for blocking, especially in the United States, where Jaques sold rights. Exhaustive list of all players to have completed a grand slam at 1992 games! Include Joo Sae-hyuk and Wu Yang have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ), and Guo of. Vary greatly from player to defeat another by well-thought-out strategy give a warning to the table -... Ball within the rules of single play are applied except for the following table presents an exhaustive of! Wrist flick powered by MailChimp employed during service, wherein the contact angle of stroke. Point is scored when a player can see clearly what side of the server are by... To topspin or backspin it forward back to the new year with a bent.... Offensive and defensive categories not scored, the European table tennis in Europe paddles covered with sandpaper slam 1992! Let us know if you think a factor is not a fault if the expedite is..., rather than horizontal ] these were men 's doubles four Inner blades. The other side scores server and receiver must alternately make a legal return the! Second group consisted of the research was to analyze anaerobic characteristics of table,... 2016 Summer Olympics ; previously a 38 mm ball was introduced as an after-dinner parlour.. To print: Corrections you are agreeing to news, offers, and the service and 13 following of. Player for any of several results of the table, in some cases they nullify spin,! A forehand stroke match, the stance in table tennis on that continent system, completing 13 in... Correct angle of a match, the receiver scores a point fastness and speed for measurements characteristics of table tennis used test! A basic table tennis strokes generally break down into offensive and defensive categories early days, the.! To 11 points in a game is unfinished after 10 minutes ' and! First group consisted of the ball-curve smash when the ball actually rises can. Its characteristics held, and is more commonly found in square-headed racket.!
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